Want a good review at work? To get that new job? Give more data.

At Google, we do employee reviews every six months. Right now, we’re almost halfway through our review period, so I will take the next few weeks to meet with my employees and help them self-assess where they sit in terms of a rating and, potentially, a promotion. I do these meetings in the middle of the cycle to avoid any surprises and offer the opportunity for improvement before the formal assessment time.

Today, during our mid-cycle review, one of my team members made an excellent point. Preparing for our review process mimics how you might prepare to answer Google’s interview questions. In some ways, each review cycle is a mini, written interview.

Because of my team member’s analogy, I looked back at some of Laszlo Bock’s interview advice for a Thomas Friedman column. In answering “What’s your best advice for job interviews?,” Bock also provides good advice for review preparation.

“What you want to do is say: ‘Here’s the attribute I’m going to demonstrate; here’s the story demonstrating it; here’s how that story demonstrated that attribute.’ ” And here is how it can create value. “Most people in an interview don’t make explicit their thought process behind how or why they did something and, even if they are able to come up with a compelling story, they are unable to explain their thought process. (“How to Get a Job at Google, Part 2”, NYT, 4/20/2014)

While Bock’s advice focuses on future impact, it also applies to showcasing past impact which you can use for your next review.

In my opinion, the best way to show how you created value is to use specific numbers. For example, instead of writing in your self-review “I lead a complex deal for XY customer that we won. While doing so, I received great feedback from my peers saying “yada yada,”” write:

“Over the past three months, I worked with XY client to increase their spend from $XX to $YY dollars. I did so through leveraging XY engineers and creating this [insert your link here] timeline with the customer. After I realized the strategy of using Y [external partner] with Z [internal resource], drove me to close my sale faster, I shared my process with our team, so that they could learn from my success. After speaking with ZZ team members that employed the process I created, we saw each of their deals progress XX days faster than the rest of the deals on the Americas team”.

Even beyond a review cycles and interviews, you can employ this strategy when writing you resume. Challenge yourself to provide excruciating detail. Instead of “I lead XY team and we achieved 170% of quota,” say “Leading a four person sales pod with three hundred customers, I leveraged six partners to achieved 170% of quota while also selling the largest number of products average five skus versus the national average of two”. Here is very outdated resume I prepared for business school internship interviews where I tried my best to use these techniques.

Good luck in your next review, resume submission or interview!

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Want a good review at work? To get that new job? Give more data.

Become an “Oscar Winning Actress” or any three words you want people to remember you by

Last week I spoke on a Harvard Tech Panel and one of my co-panelists, Katherine, gave some advice that I want to share here: decide how you want people to remember you in three words and plan, ahead of time, to encourage that perception. Katherine made the point that individuals can control and mold his or her own “brand”.

I shared one story from my career when I used this tactic to make the switch from sales into marketing. After college, I started my career in customer support and sales at Google. Once I realized I wanted to move into marketing, I needed to change my perception from “entry-level customer support specialist” to “scrappy, creative marketer” to get the role as an Associate Product Marketing Manager launching Google Fiber. I did so by building my experience with six months of extra volunteering on the Fiber team doing anything related to marketing, communications, operations and, even, customer support. After proving to the team that I could be the “scrappy, creative marketer” they wanted, I, in the team’s mind, was qualified to do the role (marketing + Fiber team experience). No one, when I applied, told me I did not possess enough marketing experience because I built my “creative marketing” portfolio with the team.

Even if you don’t yet have the work product or characteristics to backup the three word brand you want, you can start building it. If you work in sales and want to become an “extremely technical customer engineer,” start shadowing customer engineers and leading technical calls. It may not work immediately, or come easily, but it will over time. With enough preparation you can claim any three word description you want. The three (ok, four) perception I work to build now: “connector & career guru”.

Once you start “shopping” your new brand, check-in to make sure it lands well. While it may be awkward to bluntly ask how people you interact with perceive you, think of other tests to see if you successfully left clients, co-workers, etc with the perception you want. Launch and iterate.

One caveat: my brother would argue that I can never become “an all-star NBA player”. I argue that’s TBD.

Become an “Oscar Winning Actress” or any three words you want people to remember you by

Is Memorial Day more than the just the start of summer?

I very much enjoyed my three day weekend. As I write, I am sitting in the car back to NYC with my cousin, her husband and their 11 week old baby. We spent the weekend in New Hampshire with our family where we got to watch Evelyn, the baby, meet our grandma, her great grandma, for the first time. I am grateful for the chance to see my grandma’s joy at meeting Evelyn.

However, seeing my friend from business school on Friday, who got wounded while serving in the military, made me feel guilty that I did not spend more of this weekend reflecting on and doing something for those that help our country.

In thinking about why we did not act more on this day, my cousin, her husband and I hypothesized that our lack of interaction with people that serve leads us to more easily forget them. Our grandparents joined the military because of WWII and thus every echelon of society gained exposure to soldiers. Today, the military predominately employs working class Americans. And, as society continues to isolate itself, we gain less exposure to those that grew up differently.

At least in discussing why we pay less attention, in some way, we did not forget. Next year, I want to do something more for the families of our veterans. While we memorialize those we lost, let us also work to help their families live.

 

 

Is Memorial Day more than the just the start of summer?

How do I know I am making progress?

This weekend my sister-in-law and her friends graduated from business school.  Watching her earn her MBA over the past two years, I saw her develop in many facets of life.  She learned to ask for what she wants.  She prioritized new relationships with old ones.  She took risks on classes and jobs that scared her.  I am very proud of both her personal and professional growth.

While I can easily see her growth over the past two years, she grew in areas that are hard to track.  How should we measure growth in learning to ask for what we want?  Or, even more difficult, how we prioritize our friends, family and ambitions? 

Conducting interviews at Google over the past two years (and asking a lot of GCA questions, thank you Lazlo) taught me that you can always find a way to track progress, even in the “warm, fuzzy” areas.  Often, simply focusing on tracking, though you cannot record precisely, helps.  And, furthermore, showing yourself progress keeps you motivated (The Power of Small WinsTeresa Amabile, Steven J. Kramer, 2011).  Any thoughtful solutions works, but below you can find a few of my favorites:

  • Write down quick snippets each week.  This is my favorite solution since it takes 30 minutes each week and promotes team transparency as well.
  • Use OKRs.
  • Commit to “one simple thing” as a resolution.
  • Develop a PDP.

 

Gretchen Rubin suggests we copy Benjamin Franklin’s ethos on tracking progress.  He said, when reflecting on the chart he used to track his progress, “though I never arrived at the perfection I had been so ambitious of obtaining, but fell far short of it, yet I was, by the endeavor, a better and a happier man than I otherwise should have been if I had not attempted” (Benjamin Franklin. Autobiography. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859.).

As you aim to grow in “warm, fuzzy” areas that seem hard to track (one of mine now is Headspace), I challenge you to try to find a way to measure your progress.  I believe it will cause you to try harder and, maybe, achieve more.

 

How do I know I am making progress?

How Should I Spend My Money?

NYC offers so many tempting ways to spend money: apartments, jewelry, clothing, etc, which we often believe will make us happy.  Yet, most research concludes that spending money on experiences, saving time (especially to minimize commuting), giving to others and purchasing smaller, frequent treats (expensive chocolate bars over one large sailboat) produce the greatest “happiness” return.

One of my business school professors, Prof Malcolm Baker, espoused these concepts in his “last lecture” of the year.  In Professor Baker’s view, financial analysis enables us to:

  • Deliver a logical, organized thought process that stimulates thinking.
  • Deliver useful, though rough, estimates.
  • Recognize the limitations of numerical analyses and risk management and measurement.
  • Create value as an integral part of firm strategy and operations.

Ultimately, he said, “Finance is ideally more of a process, a lens to view the impact of your decisions.”  I try to apply this theory of finance not only to how my company spends money for financial return, but also to how I spend my own money for “happiness” returns.  I follow the research below to help me perform this analysis:

Opt for an experience rather than something tangible.  Research shows that individuals are happier when they invest in experiences rather than material possessions.  “Do experiences make people happier than material possessions?  In two surveys, respondents from various demographic groups indicated that experiential purchases—those made with the primary intention of acquiring a life experience—made them happier than material purchases.”  (Van Boven & Gilovich, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003).

Invest in your happiness with more free time.  Research shows that spending money on time-saving purchases — e.g., a shorter commute, lawn-mowing, laundry, housecleaning — promotes greater happiness than spending money on objects.  “Surveys of large, diverse samples from four countries reveal that spending money on time-saving services is linked to greater life satisfaction.”  (Whillans AV, Dunn EW, Smeets P, Bekkers R, & Norton M, National Academy of Sciences, 2017).

Indulge yourself.  Indulgences may seem impractical in the moment, but the more time that passes after a purchase decision, the more consumers regret choosing a practical option instead of an indulgence.  (Kivetz & Keinan, Journal of Consumer Research, 2006).

Giving might actually be better than receiving.  Teams that received pro-social bonuses performed better after receiving the bonuses than teams that received money to spend on themselves. People are generally happier and more satisfied when they give to others, so be generous (Anik L, Aknin LB, Norton MI, Dunn EW, & Quoidbach J, PLoS ONE 8(9): e75509, 2013).

When you get your next bonus or pay check, try out one out and see how you feel.

 

How Should I Spend My Money?

Does your attractiveness impact your performance review?

Amy Schumer’s latest movie “I Feel Pretty” sparked an interesting debate in the NYTimes this week.  Amanda Hess wrote:

“I Feel Pretty” is based on a pretty little lie: Looks don’t matter. It’s what’s on the inside that counts.

In the film, the down-on-herself Renee (played by Amy Schumer) conks her head in a SoulCycle accident and awakens believing that she has miraculously become supermodel-hot. She revels in it — charging into a bikini contest, snagging a promotion and basking in the affections of a beefy corporate scion — only to discover that her looks never changed a bit. The benefits she thought she accrued through beauty were won instead through her newfound self-confidence. (Hess, Amanda, ‘I Feel Pretty’ and the Rise of Beauty-Standard Denialism, NYTimes, April 23, 2018)

Hess argues that, in reality, looks do matter.  We cannot simply tell women who believe (or are) unattractive that society does not care about their looks but rather their self-confidence.  Women (and men) cannot overcome the impact of their appearance with self-confidence.

Hess’s article prompted me to think about how attractiveness functions as an unconscious bias in the workplace.  As a manager, I try to challenge myself on my biases and if they impact my team.  Some of the common ones I discuss with my colleagues include gender, race, time in role and, my favorite, recency.

However, we never discuss our bias towards attractive people.  Attractiveness remains a silent bias perhaps because talking about it seems uncouth and everyone, at the moment, fears #metoo.  While we may not yet comfortably talk about this bias, academics do write about the topic.

The most compelling evidence that humans prefer more attractive humans to less attractive humans comes from a study done at the University of Texas in 1999.  In the study, Rubenstein found that infant face perception showedinfants’ preferences for attractive faces exist well before socialization from parents, peers, and the media can affect these preferences” (Rubenstein, A.J. Dev Psychol. 1999 May;35(3):848-55).  Even before we inherit the values of our shallow society, we prefer pretty people.

Obviously, we cannot conclusively say attractiveness leads to higher salaries or promotions at work.  In fact, in some scenarios it may work detrimentally.  For example, Maria Agathe’s 2011 study found if a “person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps” (Agathe, Maria, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2011. 37(8) 1042–105).

Regardless of which way the bias flows, we need to add attractiveness (both physical traits, fashion style and self-grooming) to the list of biases to think about when judging the performance of others.

In my world, I will think about attractiveness as a potential bias in my management and work with others, but I don’t think I am quite ready to challenge my peers to do the same.

Does your attractiveness impact your performance review?

How to Deal with Difficult Customers

I love sales because it often produces (if you sell a product you believe in) win-win situations.  You make money selling a product that people or companies truly needs to do something better.

Sometimes, I find uncovering these “deals” easy.  The customer gives you all of the information you need to make appropriate recommendations.  However, I most enjoy the times when I face resistance.

In a call I took recently, a customer voiced (GREAT) dissatisfaction with what we would write into a contract.  I knew we would not change our mind on the contract request.  However, this lead to an interesting question: What made this customer “need” that provision?

In gathering more information on the customer’s goals and own contract language, we realized that could meet their needs without changing our policy and which resources we needed to leverage to do this.  The deal is now back on track.

How did we get the customer to ultimately share the information we needed?

  • Transparency: “The best way for me to get you a meeting with [insert senior leader the customer wanted to speak to here] is to understand how big of a client you might be with us.  Can you tell me how much you spend on [insert product] right now?” Customers know we reserve senior execs only for certain customers.  They understand this, so in showing those cards as to why I want to understand their size to help them, I got valuable information that helps me size the deal.
  • How / What Questions: Always use open-ended questions.  It helps secure the most information and comes off as less aggressive and more aimed towards understanding.
    • “What do your customers want?”
      • “What did you commit to legally?”
    • “What are your main goals in this new product?”
    • “What does your 2018 strategy include?
  • Share your BATNA: While I don’t recommend this in all situations, an openness to walk away from the deal can help.  “Writing X down will never work here. Does it make sense to continue conversation on how can find a way to help?”  This proved to the customer that we did not lie, but do want to help.

I recommend watching a few of the videos or reading Ury’s book below if you nerd out on negotiation like I do.

Good resources for further reading (a business school favorite): Getting Past No: Negotiating In Difficult Situations, Online Videos by William Ury

How to Deal with Difficult Customers